24시출장샵
  • 광주태국 출장 마사지
  • 대구출장샵
  • 카지노사이트
  • 남원조건 카페
  • 광주출장샵◐예약┈광주용산 안마방〈광주용원 마사지〉ア﹝광주마사지 침대﹞£광주수원 마사지 추천→광주사상 안마방╝광주안마방 모닝콜○광주마사지 트위터☎광주남자 출장 마사지

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    온라인카지노
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    광주출장샵✓예약■광주용산 안마방〈광주사상 안마방〉○﹝광주콜녀﹞◦광주커플 마사지 방법♫광주안마방 카드결제⇐광주러시아 마사지◊광주부산 하단 출장→광주화성시 안마방

    The governments of more than 190 nations 옥천후불제 출장샵 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    광주출장샵♣예약┍광주용산 안마방〈광주의정부 마사지〉㍿﹝광주연신내 안마방﹞┠광주1인샵 마사지╬광주안마방 아영이♨광주냉정 안마방↸광주오류동 마사지▀광주안마방 오피

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    광주출장샵♐24시출장샵⇈광주용산 안마방〈광주합정 마사지〉◄﹝광주코코넛오일 마사지﹞┐광주평촌 안마방↕광주상봉동 안마방ツ광주출장마사wlイ광주안마방 porn➽광주안마방 수원

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 온라인카지노 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    광주출장샵〓예약금없는출장샵⇥광주용산 안마방〈광주안마방 텀블〉☯﹝광주콜걸강추﹞▀광주천안역 여관►광주안마방 코스↹광주안마방 밥⇌광주라오스 마사지⇏광주안양 안마방 후기

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 진도논산 안마방 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    광주출장샵£출장부르는법┟광주용산 안마방〈광주별내 마사지〉ニ﹝광주수원 출장﹞◁광주감성마사지란↾광주군자역 안마방☎광주하동 안마방♠광주천안역 여관™광주동대문구 안마방

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 군산출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    광주출장샵광주안마방 몰 카

  • 창원일본인 안마방
  • 광주구디 안마방
  • 광주출장샵
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    광주출장샵ト출장부르는법▪광주용산 안마방〈광주동대구역 마사지〉┉﹝광주여친 마사지﹞◁광주다낭 마사지 vip⇎광주부산 연산동 출장⇃광주대구 콜ハ광주박중현 안마방✐광주얼굴 작아지는 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 경주일본식 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 부산출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    전주출장샵
    홍성포항 타이 마사지 포항출장샵 청도마사지 1위 작품
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 부산출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    광주출장샵╤예약イ광주용산 안마방〈광주원룸 출장〉┳﹝광주안마방 video﹞╳광주광진구 안마방➳광주안마방 할머니☪광주천안 카페☛광주신림 아로마 마사지♨광주일산 여관

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 영암아쿠아 마사지 젤 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    광주출장샵サ출장부르는법┎광주용산 안마방〈광주청도 마사지〉❃﹝광주주갤 안마방﹞╟광주상암동 안마방♯광주안마방 사까시☪광주림프 마사지◤광주턱근육 마사지◆광주출장 타이 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 전주출장안마 .

    산청안마방 실장
    마산왕십리 마사지 카지노사이트 진도대전복합터미널 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    광주출장샵‿24시출장샵◎광주용산 안마방〈광주동탄 마사지 후기〉☰﹝광주태국 마사지 가격﹞⇛광주전주 모텔 가격ツ광주프리마호텔 마사지☼광주1인 마사지◈광주video fc2 마사지┗광주마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 천안출장샵 .

    광주출장샵◎예약⇔광주용산 안마방〈광주천안 유흥〉◘﹝광주전주 여관﹞✘광주fc2 일본 마사지┏광주씨엠립 마사지⚘광주용산역 마사지╫광주안마방 터치╥광주마사지 일본어

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And jtvx.xyz .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 사천동두천 안마방 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    광주출장샵コ출장부르는법↿광주용산 안마방〈광주전신 마사지〉┠﹝광주간석동 안마방﹞ζ광주안마방 짜파게티“광주강동구 안마방☃광주태국마사지 후기➻광주거제 안마방 추천┾광주보령 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    광주출장샵┺예약금없는출장샵﹄광주용산 안마방〈광주안마방 리뷰〉◑﹝광주편두통 마사지﹞£광주안마방 욕➼광주제주시청 마사지ト광주마사지 하다가♂광주덕천동 마사지❣광주수원역 안마방

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 군포서울 안마방 위치 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 광주출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 카지노사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 경상남도주안 모텔 추천 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 구미출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    광주출장샵╗예약╚광주용산 안마방〈광주동대구 모텔〉◇﹝광주안마방 역립﹞▪광주마사지 남친¤광주맛사지◀광주동두천 마사지♂광주중국마사지 후기┏광주애인대행

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, adko.xyz , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 카지노사이트 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 대전출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    광주출장샵☆출장부르는법➹광주용산 안마방〈광주타이마사지 종류〉✄﹝광주안마방 핸드폰﹞╉광주전국 안마방ζ광주일본 마사지 품번•광주경마 예상 지존 대회◎광주안마방 태국⊙광주창원 안마방 후기

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    성주동해 안마방
    전주출장안마 양산광주 대딸방 대구출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    광주출장샵☂24시출장샵⇪광주용산 안마방〈광주출장 만남 보증금〉↓﹝광주안마방 빨리싸면﹞▤광주에로 마사지➼광주에로틱 마사지▄광주출장미인아가씨✖광주예약금 없는 출장✐광주강릉 안마방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.광주출장샵광주얼굴 마사지↠광주안마방 비비기▨﹝광주아산 마사지﹞광주마산 안마방ξ광주콜걸출장마사지⇍광주여교사 마사지⇠광주눈커지는 마사지☁목포출장안마출장부르는법광주콜걸➼광주출장 선입금▨{광주군산 여관}광주안마방 휴게◊광주출장샵예약포항ⓔ광주잠실 안마방╢광주호치민 1군 마사지£광주출장샵이천철구 마사지광주부천역 안마방╕광주카톡↔‹광주출장샵예약포항›광주연예인 마사지⇂광주미시 마사지•광주척추 마사지⇖광주안마방 마사지↹광주청라 마사지▧광주강릉 마사지⇪〔광주광혜원 마사지〕광주인계동 안마방☆광주안마방 업소♣광주천호 안마방♨광주안마방 porn♣광주건전한 마사지╪광주출장마사지▣「광주마사지 핸플」광주대전 모텔 다방➶광주국산 마사지ρ광주안마방 비용▶광주자카르타 마사지┷광주마사지 공떡○광주안마방 쓰리섬☢「광주안마방 서비스」광주연수동 마사지ξ광주fc2 일본 마사지⇁광주안마방 실장╆광주안마방 못쌈┷예약금없는출장샵보은춘천 안마방예약광주안마방 경찰♪광주남부터미널 안마방ェ﹝광주허리통증 마사지﹞광주포승 마사지♞광주어방동 마사지☈광주일본 오일 마사지ⓛ광주울산 명촌 안마방➻광주출장샵광주출장샵광주출장안마광주안마방 가는 법광주안마방 수원광주순천 마사지광주퇴폐광주출장샵광주족저근막염 마사지⇁광주포항 모텔 추천♣﹝광주안마방 실사﹞광주안마방 신고☾광주신중동 마사지☱광주흥출장안마╍광주천안 출장↬의령안중 모텔

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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