광주출장샵➽24시출장샵❤광주용산 안마방〈광주부산 출장 서비스〉☱﹝광주안마방 시스템﹞↟광주척추 마사지➺광주스웨디시 마사지 단점ス광주러시아 밤문화╬광주안마방 움짤☵광주일베 모텔

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

카지노사이트
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

광주출장샵エ예약▀광주용산 안마방〈광주화명동 마사지〉╇﹝광주전립선 마사지 후기﹞╀광주마사지 19π광주머리 마사지❖광주동대구 여관↼광주마사지 방법☁광주연산동 안마방

The governments of more than 190 nations 구미서울 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

광주출장샵■24시출장샵┲광주용산 안마방〈광주서초 마사지〉↮﹝광주민락동 마사지﹞┭광주봉담 마사지ラ광주마사지 망가◐광주수안보 마사지┶광주여자친구 마사지♭광주안마방 야간

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

광주출장샵┰출장부르는법⊙광주용산 안마방〈광주중동 안마방〉☁﹝광주수유 마사지﹞✄광주이하루 마사지♖광주인천 마사지⇋광주안마방┹광주김해 마사지✘광주아로마마사지 꿀팁

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 울산출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

광주출장샵유예약금없는출장샵☺광주용산 안마방〈광주아침 안마방〉✌﹝광주안마방 전화번호﹞◄광주조건 카톡♥광주서울 마사지 홈 서비스⇅광주칠곡 안마방⇀광주출장샵 예약금➻광주셀룰라이트 마사지

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 남원동대구역 모텔 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

광주출장샵ヨ24시출장샵↕광주용산 안마방〈광주천호 안마방〉▦﹝광주v라인 마사지﹞◐광주괌 마사지 팔러λ광주대전 모텔 가격☇광주정준호 안마방☂광주거제 마사지↕광주유흥 마사지

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 서울출장안마 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

광주출장샵광주지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성 전용 마사지

  • 강릉당진 마사지
  • 광주안마방 첫경험
  • 광주출장샵
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    광주출장샵❉출장부르는법╨광주용산 안마방〈광주쿠알라룸푸르 마사지〉√﹝광주태국 마사지 여행﹞§광주안마방 홈런ウ광주동서울 안마방♔광주발바닥 마사지♪광주용암동 마사지ソ광주광진구 안마방

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 의성대구 출장 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 온라인카지노 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    카지노사이트
    아산울산 마사지 카지노사이트 의령오피스텔 아가씨
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 포항출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    광주출장샵╎출장부르는법◆광주용산 안마방〈광주전주 타이 마사지〉ツ﹝광주하노이 마사지﹞☇광주호치민 리버티 마사지 가격┛광주강남 안마방 후기♬광주2콩 안마방☌광주안마방 토렌트☰광주출장아가씨

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 오산흉쇄유돌근 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    광주출장샵⇖예약κ광주용산 안마방〈광주대천 안마방〉┓﹝광주까치산 안마방﹞━광주스웨디시 마사지 단점的광주광양 마사지╁광주부평 안마방░광주가슴커지는 마사지⇟광주동대문구 안마방

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 구미출장안마 .

    오산잠실 마사지
    담양태국 현지 마사지 구미출장안마 마산마사지 몰 카
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    광주출장샵⇌24시출장샵⇦광주용산 안마방〈광주경성대 마사지〉▦﹝광주천안역 근처 모텔﹞웃광주부산 출장☛광주음부 마사지➸광주안마방 내부ツ광주신주쿠 마사지╖광주여교사 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 전주출장안마 .

    광주출장샵╯예약금없는출장샵▄광주용산 안마방〈광주성인 안마방〉卐﹝광주안마방 단속 확률﹞▲광주안성 마사지➻광주태국 마사지 야동◎광주남친 안마방╖광주공유 마사지→광주스포츠 마사지 자격증

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 바카라사이트 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 공주흉부 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    광주출장샵▬예약┽광주용산 안마방〈광주초대남 마사지〉┛﹝광주여친 마사지﹞↹광주주안 여관♩광주안산 줄리엣 마사지◄광주김천 안마방➹광주경찰 안마방▣광주홍대 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    광주출장샵☪예약↕광주용산 안마방〈광주안마방 torrent〉╄﹝광주nhdta 마사지﹞◑광주심장 마사지↹광주일본에서 한국녀섭외 마사지⇗광주안마방 카드결제♨광주조건 만남 서울❣광주괌 안마방

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 진주안마방 카드사용 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 대구출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 카지노사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 태안티켓 썰 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 창원출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    광주출장샵☏24시출장샵ル광주용산 안마방〈광주자지 마사지〉░﹝광주여인숙 여자﹞▩광주안산 안마방♥광주마사지 수면╥광주노량진 마사지⇩광주강남구청 안마방⇗광주마사지 자격증

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 군산출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 서울출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 카지노사이트 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    광주출장샵»24시출장샵╊광주용산 안마방〈광주사가정 안마방〉♔﹝광주안마방 도촬﹞♧광주가경동 안마방♐광주셀프 어깨 마사지☞광주안마방 영업시간⇜광주예약금 없는 출장♜광주대구 안마방

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    옥천아스카 키라라 마사지
    카지노사이트.xyz 경산중국식 마사지 부산출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    광주출장샵▄24시출장샵⇔광주용산 안마방〈광주군포 안마방〉➻﹝광주양재역 마사지﹞▶광주여관 비용♔광주포르치오 마사지﹃광주부산 마사지⇥광주목포 안마방♪광주출장업계위

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.광주출장샵광주광주 대딸방☺광주오산 타이 마사지┑﹝광주안마방 나무위키﹞광주안마방 사까시▽광주안마방 cctv♪광주안중 마사지ト광주안양1번가 마사지✿포항출장안마출장부르는법광주출장샵추천▒광주전립선 마사지┗{광주공유 마사지 찌라시}광주문산 안마방☟광주사각턱 마사지➽광주죽전 안마방⇣광주모텔출장마사지샵⇪광주출장샵태백안마방 썰만화광주안산 줄리엣 마사지↷광주경기 광주 마사지➚‹광주콜걸만남›광주타이 마사지 ㅁㅁㄹλ광주안마방 파워배드▽광주정왕역 안마방∴광주성신여대 마사지┇광주수유역 아로마 마사지┴광주마사지 구인↤〔광주크리스마스 안마방〕광주구래동 마사지✌광주최음 마사지♨광주구의역 마사지╥광주이반 마사지▪광주일본 보빨•광주안마방 텀블-「광주마사지 성추행」광주찌라시 썰♟광주칠곡3지구 마사지⇔광주이상근 마사지╟광주타이 마사지 서비스╳광주폰섹 녹음┓광주합정 마사지⇙「광주오창 안마방」광주중국 마사지 종류的광주출장 마사지 썰┳광주러브어게인 만남┅광주안마방 반말♗예약금없는출장샵청주출장가격24시출장샵광주서면 마사지┛광주안마방 발기│﹝광주신림 모텔﹞광주포항 안마방▣광주중리동 안마방♜광주중국 마사지 체험기╳광주강서구 마사지☪광주출장샵광주출장샵포항출장안마광주모텔출장마사지샵광주하마사키 마오 마사지광주안마방 video광주동대문 안마방광주출장샵광주출장아가씨0광주비키니 마사지┧﹝광주텀블러 안마방﹞광주동대문 마사지ム광주천안 만남➚광주안마방 김치남♡광주베이징 마사지⇪성남폼롤러 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

    Topics