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  • 시흥콜걸✖24시출장샵☜시흥김천 안마방【시흥세부 마사지】ホ(시흥용원 마사지)❦시흥군자역 안마방☀시흥안마방 서비스✖시흥모란 마사지♥시흥나무위키 안마방↮시흥남성전용마사지

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    군산출장샵
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    시흥콜걸♐예약☟시흥김천 안마방【시흥민락동 마사지】♣(시흥비엔티엔 마사지)♡시흥안마방 키스★시흥안마방 반말▌시흥안마방 알바◑시흥월곶 마사지◊시흥대딸

    The governments of more than 190 nations 서울출장 보증금 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    시흥콜걸☄예약►시흥김천 안마방【시흥안마방 움짤】☌(시흥태국 마사지)☇시흥안마방 나이대ツ시흥대산 마사지➹시흥광대 축소 마사지☚ 시흥조건 만남 카톡┓시흥이수역 마사지

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    시흥콜걸♤예약╯시흥김천 안마방【시흥의정부 모텔 가격】♘(시흥안마방 출장)▌시흥턱관절 마사지セ시흥강원 랜드 근처 마사지╇시흥남친 마사지☭시흥야탑 마사지 후기♮시흥용암동 마사지

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 카지노사이트 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    시흥콜걸➥예약✘시흥김천 안마방【시흥신사역 안마방】➽(시흥해운대 안마방)⇔시흥마사지 분수⇟시흥호치민 마사지◕시흥안마방 예약⚘시흥ace anma↹시흥별내 마사지

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 태안일본 마사지 몰카 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    시흥콜걸♧출장부르는법♔시흥김천 안마방【시흥센슈얼 마사지】☇(시흥안마방 시간)⇦시흥마카오 마사지╡시흥하노이 vip 마사지↕시흥강서구 마사지⇥시흥태국마사지 불법フ시흥안마방 움짤

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 카지노사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    시흥콜걸시흥안마방 왕가슴녀

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    시흥콜걸↺출장부르는법►시흥김천 안마방【시흥구리 마사지】☾(시흥서울 출장 후기)☟시흥마사지 노출☆시흥일본 마사지 섹스卐시흥마사지 일본어㍿시흥유성 마사지╗시흥잇몸 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 순창인계동 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 진주출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    온라인카지노
    광명에가오 마사지 qdomain.xyz 장성은평구 안마방
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 원주출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    시흥콜걸▤출장부르는법┐시흥김천 안마방【시흥한국여자 마사지】▶(시흥동대구역 모텔)↰시흥마사지 수면실↹시흥구글재펜✕시흥다방 콜◄시흥화곡동 안마방╞시흥사당

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 구미다낭 붐붐 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    시흥콜걸⇤24시출장샵╚시흥김천 안마방【시흥구미 마사지】✿(시흥대구 마사지 추천)☠시흥말레이시아 마사지►시흥범계역 안마방✿시흥정자역 안마방⇘시흥영종도 안마방⇎시흥부산마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 광주출장안마 .

    홍천지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성전용 마사지
    군산옆광대 마사지 대전출장샵 나주붕따우 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    시흥콜걸[출장부르는법◐시흥김천 안마방【시흥안마방 2:1】卐(시흥호치민 리버티 마사지 가격)♣시흥안마방 24시간➹시흥마사지 av☢시흥종아리 마사지 기계➹시흥에이스 안마방☽시흥연산동 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 천안출장안마 .

    시흥콜걸╞예약금없는출장샵┳시흥김천 안마방【시흥경락 마사지】✈(시흥일본 마사지 몰카)➡시흥얼굴 마사지 기계ノ시흥구래동 마사지◤시흥안마방 얼굴┤시흥청라 마사지◦시흥영등포구청 안마방

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And lovedonggu.xyz .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 경산안마방 휴게텔 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    시흥콜걸⇉출장부르는법┗시흥김천 안마방【시흥하동 안마방】✔(시흥관자놀이 마사지)♖시흥관자놀이 마사지㍿시흥호치민 리버티 마사지 가격┉시흥장안동 마사지┭시흥마사지 대딸☌시흥족저근막염 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    시흥콜걸━예약금없는출장샵ヨ시흥김천 안마방【시흥오산 타이 마사지】☛(시흥출장샵후기)☟시흥춘천 태국 마사지☲시흥서울 여인숙 가격⇢시흥서울 마사지 홈 서비스卐시흥정자 안마방❦시흥흉쇄유돌근 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 포항흉부 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 포항출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 부산출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 진해의정부 대딸방 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 창원출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    시흥콜걸☽예약금없는출장샵ⓥ시흥김천 안마방【시흥동대문구 안마방】▫(시흥눈 마사지 기계)▩시흥아산 출장 만남↯시흥유흥 마사지▥시흥야동 마사지U시흥송강동 마사지➽시흥남편 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 부산출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 군산출장안마 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 제주출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    시흥콜걸⇈예약┈시흥김천 안마방【시흥안마방 시간제】♬(시흥성장판 마사지)⇀시흥마사지 검색↭시흥은평구 마사지ル시흥안마방 몰카 torrent┳시흥삼산동 출장♡시흥건식 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    성주경성대 마사지
    온라인카지노 장수만남 카톡 대구출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    시흥콜걸√예약♥시흥김천 안마방【시흥강릉 조건녀】♝(시흥마사지 노출)↩시흥출장업소▪시흥수내 마사지✪시흥태국 에스코트↑시흥창원 출장 숙소☆시흥안마방 엄마

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.시흥콜걸시흥vip 마사지◑시흥혼자 안마방♯(시흥안성 마사지)시흥충주 안마방◥시흥여인숙 여자♪시흥러시아 밤문화タ시흥스킨쉽 마사지ェ대구출장샵24시출장샵시흥모텔 여자웃시흥성인마사지╞<시흥대딸 마사지>시흥청주 마사지↨시흥가락시장 마사지↬시흥부천 만남▶시흥안마방 전화기록☻시흥콜걸횡성안마방 단속시간시흥안마방 야동☪시흥안마방 번호↢﹛시흥용원 안마방﹜시흥흑인 마사지ハ시흥안마방 시스템☻시흥지압 나무위키♭시흥수원 안마방▨시흥안마방 모텔╰시흥안마방 카드☣<시흥구로 안마방>시흥춘천 마사지 후기❤시흥jav 마사지╘시흥마사지 야동 토렌트❀시흥마사지 로드샵┈시흥삼천포 안마방◎시흥스타 안마방➦﹝시흥교대 안마방﹞시흥천안 조건 만남⇏시흥전립선 마사지 비용╩시흥가슴커지는 마사지♡시흥진주 가격♪ 시흥마사지 후기⊙시흥출장서비스▬{시흥중국 우한 마사지}시흥대전 안마방 후기➳시흥서울 조건 카톡⇩시흥건대 안마방◑시흥잇몸 마사지▥24시출장샵서천다방 티켓 썰예약금없는출장샵시흥이종찬 마사지✐시흥강서구 안마방▬﹛시흥천안 출장 만남﹜시흥안마방◑시흥안마방 vipメ시흥일산 모텔 가격☺시흥남순 마사지╪시흥콜걸시흥콜걸전주출장안마시흥용현동 마사지시흥다낭 붐붐 마사지시흥여성전용 마사지 구인시흥에이미 안마방시흥콜걸시흥이동국 안마방☺시흥호텔 걸▶{시흥프리마호텔 마사지}시흥강남역 마사지✿시흥월곶 마사지┊시흥안마방 하늘이✍시흥체코 마사지⇩논산마사지 나무위키

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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