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  • 고성출장샵♪예약금없는출장샵♩고성안마방 한번싸면[고성전효성 마사지]╢『고성신흥 안마방』╣고성손가락 마사지➼고성속초 안마방♬고성마사지 야동⇗고성일산 안마방↽고성출장 만남 대행

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    카지노사이트
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    고성출장샵☴출장부르는법┘고성안마방 한번싸면[고성역곡 안마방]┘『고성출장아가씨』✂고성시화 안마방▫고성공덕 마사지♡고성안마방 아영이 토렌트♩고성강남역 안마방❀고성쉼터 안마방

    The governments of more than 190 nations 영주안마방 하늘이 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

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    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    고성출장샵☀예약금없는출장샵ღ고성안마방 한번싸면[고성흑인 마사지]═『고성휴게텔 안마방 차이』ウ고성붕따우 마사지ヨ고성신사역 안마방큐고성로미 로미 마사지 란◀고성제기동 안마방╏고성안마방 질싸

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 카지노사이트 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    고성출장샵◇예약금없는출장샵◘고성안마방 한번싸면[고성생리통 완화 마사지]→『고성안마방 핸드폰』☇고성승무원 마사지▌고성남편 안마방╬ 고성검빛 경마 검색╜고성유선 마사지➹고성곤지암 마사지

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 화순건식 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

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    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – qdomain.xyz – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

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    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 경상남도신주쿠 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 서울출장안마 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

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    진해대구 출장마사지 전주출장안마 고성마사지 유출
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 카지노사이트 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    고성출장샵♩예약금없는출장샵∷고성안마방 한번싸면[고성청주 용암동 안마방]╥『고성타이 마사지 썰』✍고성상봉 안마방¤고성오일 마사지♠고성에이미 성인✍고성출장마사지]고성예약

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 양구안마방 중독 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

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    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 카지노사이트 .

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    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

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    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 창원출장샵 .

    고성출장샵ホ24시출장샵☄고성안마방 한번싸면[고성fc2 일본 마사지]➺『고성안마방 혼자』↯고성단발 안마방┃고성안마방 물다이 몰카₪고성안마방 번호⇥고성대화역 마사지➹고성일본놈 길거리 한국여자 꼬셔사 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 대전출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 김천산본 안마방 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

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    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    고성출장샵➻예약금없는출장샵⇪고성안마방 한번싸면[고성용산 안마방]♛『고성진접 안마방』❁고성신림동 안마방↞고성마사지 전단지⇚고성안양 마사지☼고성울산 안마방 추천☭고성안마방 대화

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 홍성부산 모텔 촌 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The gvya.xyz , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 원주출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 안양방이동 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 천안출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    고성출장샵♪ 예약┲고성안마방 한번싸면[고성천안 안마방 후기]╘『고성동대구 모텔』▤고성전주 여관↦고성안마방 전화번호 저장◘고성척추 마사지﹃고성부산역 마사지⇪고성섹스 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 포항출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 바카라사이트 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 대전출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

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    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

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    전주출장샵 함안24시 마사지 대구출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

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    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.고성출장샵고성소라넷 안마방→고성안마방 튜브☏『고성스포츠 마사지 후기』고성분당 마사지 추천❂고성안마방 항문↹고성춘천 태국 마사지☀고성출장 서비스┨swarovskiwholesalepriceonsale.top24시출장샵고성수원 마사지 추천﹄고성안마방 아영이 토렌트☊(고성광주 안마방 추천)고성마사지 받다가♘고성수원 안마방♐고성부산 여관 가격♫고성마사지 3만원═고성출장샵순창마사지 영어고성제주도 안마방⇇고성천호동 마사지0﹛고성여자 모텔﹜고성마사지 torrent◇고성출장연애인급☞고성충주 마사지⊥고성타이 안마방◘고성백석동 마사지☎고성안마방 러시아♬[고성대전 유성 안마방]고성만수동 마사지♥고성에이미 안마방㍿고성안마방 후장”고성안산 조건ω고성당진 마사지☃고성출장미인아가씨▲【고성안마방 카드사용】고성양재 마사지↩고성안마방 24시간↮고성고추 마사지⇌고성마사지 배우는곳オ고성태국 마사지 불법┧고성목동역 마사지➡(고성출장 만남 카톡)고성타이마사지 추천┩고성안산 안마방✖고성부산 마사지»고성안마방 오르가즘╉24시출장샵양주대전 안마방예약금없는출장샵고성유흥 마사지☺고성상록수역 안마방⇀{고성마사지 자격증 종류}고성수유리 안마방↸고성부천 마사지➚고성일본 오일 마사지✄고성시각장애인 마사지☁고성출장샵고성출장샵천안출장샵고성관평동 마사지고성논현 마사지고성아로마 마사지 뜻고성부산 해운대 안마방고성출장샵고성강동구 마사지]고성안마방 첫경험▷【고성안마방 비아그라】고성조건 카페♭고성대구 전립선 마사지☛고성손가락 마사지χ고성왕십리 안마방✈철원경동맥 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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